Before independence, Jashpur was a princely state. The history of this area is quite obscure. Local evidence here states that the Dom dynasty was ruling the area until the mid-18th century. The founder of present Jashpur state Sujan Rai defeated and killed the last Dom ruler Raiban. It is said that Banswara, a small state in the old Rajputana province, was the native place of Sujan Rai’s castor. He established his rule and kingdom in Sonepur Sujan Rai, the eldest son of Suryavanshi king, was on a hunting expedition in the deep forest, his father (king) had died. His younger brother was coronated in keeping with the tradition and necessity of the occasion, as the king’s throne could not be kept vacant, even for a short while. On returning from a hunting expedition, Sujan Rai was offered and requested to take charge of the throne. But he preferred to be a sangasi and took to the forest. Wandering he reached Khudia, the capital camp of the Dom kingdom. There he found that the subjects were angry and dissatisfied with Dr Raja Raja Raibahar and they were on the verge of rebellion. Sujan Rai led a popular revolt, defeating the Dom Raja in a battle. Now, Sujan Rai became the king and a new state ‘Jashpur’ was established by him. Today’s Jashpur royal family belongs to that dynasty.

    Upon the organization of Chhattisgarh as a state, Jashpur is a part of this province.
    Located in the north-east of Chhattisgarh, Jashpur is rich in dense forests and green vegetation. The northern area of ​​the district consists of a long range of hills and mountains, sometimes running parallel to each other or criss-crossing at times. The lush green areas and valleys present elegant natural beauty. Having an average altitude of 2500 to 3500 meters above sea level, the district lies between 220 17′ N to 230 15′ N latitude and 830 30′ E to -‘ E longitude. It is bounded by Gumla district of Jharkhand on the east, parts of Surguja, Jharkhand on the west and Surguja on the north and Raigarh and Sundergarh (Orissa) districts on the south.

    With an area of ​​5339.78 square kilometres, Jashpur district has a population of 739780 as per 2001 census. Gender wise there are 370287 males and 369,493 females. 03.35 percent of the state population lives here. The population density is 127 people per square km. 96% of the population is rural. Jashpur, located on the western extension of the Chhotanagpur Plateau, forms the north-east region of Chhattisgarh province. Deep, dense and extensive forests, numerous streams and rivers have created, flow and complement the heavenly beauty in the country. In the past, the area was known as Yashpur and later as Jagdishpur and currently it is Jashpur. An overview of the history shows the distinctive features of the area. Civilization and cultural heritage are the sum total of man’s efforts and contributions to the natural environment. The land and soil of Jashpur has rich bio-diversity, ample mineral deposits, Well distributed drainage system, serene environment and honest, hardworking, peace loving work force. Nature has generously given everything. The people of the land express their gratitude towards nature with their protest attitude.

    Khudia Rani and Gondwana Mahadev, two archaeological sites, stand as testimony to the fact that the region was fertile for the development of civilization. Some forgotten and lesser known miraculous legends have also been recorded. Sculpture was a well-developed art. Investigation of the history of the land reveals a rich and colorful tradition and culture of the people. This is the difference of identity of the district.

    Archaeological sites are important in appreciating the history. In the 18th century, Jashpur was one of the 14 princely states of Chhattisgarh, placed under the Surguja Group. However, till 1905 Chhotanagpur was under the administration of the Commissioner. It is worth noting that no archaeological or historical studies and explorations were carried out during or after imperial rule. Small mud forts scattered all around are still waiting for their scientific discovery. The prevailing mystery, if uncovered, could address archaeological sites dating back to the country’s prehistoric period.

    Jashpur area has been rich and rich with archaeological wealth. However, except for the recent history of the principality, no facts or figures, worth mentioning, are available. Some glimpses of the ancient past can be seen in two literary works The Diwan of Chhattisgarh Feudal State Gojiter and Kankar Raghuveer Prasad, published in 1909, wrote a work for literature, ‘Jharkhand Jhankar’ by EMD Brett, Some Facts about the History of Jashpur telling. No other source has been found so far. Scattered around various parts of the region, one can find statues, sculptures, and remains of ancient places of worship in their dead states. There are no sculptures, carvings or drawings available to provide information about sites of archaeological importance.

    District and Sessions Court Jashpur is currently situated next to the Collectorate building. District and Sessions Court Jashpur was inaugurated on 18.12.2001 by Honorable Shri Justice W.A. Shishak, Chief Justice, Honorable High Court Bilaspur. Shri Raghubir Singh was the first District and Sessions Judge, Jashpur, who assumed charge on 02.10.2003.